Volume 14, Number 1, March 2002

Histamine Release from Rat Mast Cells Induced by Human α-Defensin-1 Present in Jaw Cyst Fluid

Nobuyoshi Mizukawa, Koichi Sawaki, Masayuki Kamio, Joji Fukunaga, Takaaki Ueno, Shin Takagi, Toshio Sugahara
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 1, Okayama University Dental School, Okayama, Japan

Objective: To investigate the release of histamine from rat mast cells elicited by human α-defensin-1 contained in jaw cyst fluid.
Patients and Methods: Human α-defensin-1 was purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography from human jaw cyst fluid, and the mast cells were collected from the peritoneal cavities of rats.
Results: Histamine release was induced in isolated rat mast cells by both extracted and synthetic human α-defensin-1. Changes in vascular permeability induced by human α-defensin-1 were also estimated by the passive skin test in rats. Extracted and synthetic human α-defensin-1 induced histamine release from isolated rat mast cells in a dose-dependent manner over a concentration range of 1 to 15 µg/mL; the histamine release induced by the extracted and synthetic human α-defensin-1 (15 µg/mL) was 39.4 ± 2.3 and 37.6 ± 1.8%, respectively. When human α-defensin-1 was injected into rat skin intradermally, the vascular permeability increased. This response occurred with as little as 0.1 µg of human α-defensin-1, and a strong response was observed with 0.5 and 1.0 µg. These responses were completely abolished upon injection with 1 µg of the antihistamine drug diphenhydramine hydrochloride.
Conclusion: Human α-defensin-1 in human jaw cyst fluid can act as an inducer of histamine release from mast cells both in vivo and in vitro.

Key words: Defensins, Mast cells, Histamine release, Jaw cysts, Cyst fluid

Asian J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;14:35-39.
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